History of creation of electronic computers

Third generation


Development in the sixties chips - the whole devices and knots from tens and hundreds the transistors fulfilled on one chip of the semiconductor (that now name as chips) has led to creation of the COMPUTER of 3rd generation.

 

During the same time there is a semiconducting memory which and is used to this day in personal computers as the operative. Application of chips has much more increased possibilities of the COMPUTER. Now the central processing unit has had an opportunity in a parallel way to work and control numerous peripheral units.

 

COMPUTERS could handle simultaneously some programs (a multiprogramming principle). As a result of implementation of a principle of multiprogramming there was a possibility of operation in a time sharing in the dialog mode. The users remote from the COMPUTER had an opportunity, independently from each other, operatively to co-operate with the computer.


These years production of computers gains industrial scope. The IBM which has made the way in leaders of the first realised the COMPUTER set - a series completely computers compatible with each other from the smallest, in size with a small case (it is less then yet did not do), to the most powerful and expensive models. IBM System/360 set was the most widespread those years.


Since the COMPUTER of 3rd generation, development of serial COMPUTERS became traditional. Though computers of one series strongly differed from each other by possibilities and productivity, they were is informational, program and is hardware are compatible. For example, the countries SEV have been released the COMPUTER of a uniform series («COMPUTER EC») "EC-1022", "EC-1030", "EC-1033", "EC-1046", "EC-1061", reached "EC-1066", etc. Productivity of these computers from 500 thousand to 2 million operations a second, the RAM size reached from 8 MB to 192 MB.
Electronics also concerns the COMPUTER of this generation «IÂÌ-370», «— 100/25», «Electronics — 79», «CM-3», «CM-4», etc.
For COMPUTER series the software (operating systems, high-level languages, applications etc.) has been strongly expanded.


Low quality of electronic accessories was a weak place of the Soviet COMPUTERS of the third generation. From here constant backlog from the western developments on speed, weight and dimensions, but as developers of SM insist, not on functionality.

 

To compensate this backlog, in the special processors were developed, allowing to build high-efficiency systems for private tasks. Equipped by a special processor of Fure-transformations CM-4, for example, it was used for radar-tracking mapping of Venus.

 

In the beginning 60 there are first minicomputers - the small low-power computers accessible under the price to small corporations or laboratories. Minicomputers represented the first step on path to the personal computers which trial samples have been released only in the mid-seventies. The known set of minicomputers PDP of Digital Equipment corporation has served as a prototype for the Soviet series of computers SEE


Meanwhile the quantity of units and connections between them, finding room in one chip, permanently grew, and in 70th years chips contained already thousand transistors. It has allowed to unite the majority of components of the computer in a unique small detail - as Intel corporation has made in 1971, having released the first microprocessor which intended for only just appeared desktop calculators. This invention could make the present revolution next decade - after all the microprocessor is heart and soul of the modern personal computer.


But there is more to come - really, the boundary of 60 and 70th years was fatal time. In 1969 the first global computer network - a germ of has arisen that we now name as the Internet. And in the same 1969 there was simultaneously Unix operating system and the programming language "C" , made huge impact on the program world and till now saving the advanced position.